martes, 7 de noviembre de 2017

Unit2: Nutrition

Unit 2: Nutrition

0. Introduction
1. Digestive System
2. Circulartory System
3. Respiratory System
4. Escretory system


Our bodies need energy to work. The energy we receive in the form of food and drink is processed by the digestive system. The respiratory system extracts oxygen from the atmosphere and uses it to convert the nutrients into energy. The circulatory system then transports this energy to different parts of the body. Finally, the excretory system gets rid of unwanted or toxic subtances. The different systems all work in harmony to keep us healthy.

Analyse and organise:

Look at the box below. It has terms for different parts of the body. What function do they have?
Copy and complete the diagram.


Digestion is the way your body gets nutrients and energy from the food you eat. Many organs help in digestion.




The circulatory system transports nutrients and oxygen through blood to the cells and also helps to get rid of waste.
The main organ of the circulatory system is the heart.



Blood consists of plasma and blood cells.

1. Plasma:

Plasma is a yellowish liquid which is 90% water. The blood cells float in. It carries the nutrients and waste products.

2. Blood cells:
  • Red blood cells give blood its colour. They carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • White blood cells fight infection. They surround and absorb germs which enter the body.
  • When the body is losing blood because of a cut in the skin, platelets join together and help stop the bleeding.


3. Blood vessels:

Blood is transported through three types of blood vessels.

Resultado de imagen de arteries capillaries and veins

  • Arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. This blood contains oxygen.
  • Veins carry the blood back to the heart. This blood contains carbon dioxide.
  • Capillaries are tiny blood vessels which connect the arteries and the veins. They have very thin walls so gases and nutrients can easily pass through them to the cells.


The heart is a muscle which pumps blood through the body. It usually beats between 60 and 100 times per minute. When we do exercise, our bodies need more oxygen, so our heart beats faster.

The heart is made up of four chambers: two atria and two ventricles.

The top two chambers are called the right and left atria; they receive blood coming into the heart. 
The bottom part of the heart is made up of the right and left ventricles.
The atria and the ventricles are separated by valves which prevent blood from flowing backwards.
The heart contracts and expands to push blood around the body through beating. Each beat has two phases:
  • Systole: The heart contract and sends blood to the arteries.
  • Diastole: The heart relaxes and blood enters from the veins.


The movement of the blood through the heart and around the body is called circulation.
Blood flows around the body in a double circuit.
  • During pulmonary circulation, blood flows from the heart to the lungs and                     back to the heart again.
  • During systemic/general circulation, the blood flows from the heart to                      the rest of the body.



Our cells need oxygen (O2) to combine with nutrients and to produce energy. During this process, the cells produce carbon dioxide (CO2) that has to be expelled from the body. To obtain oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide we use our respiratory system.


When we take a breath, air enters through the nose and mouth. It passes down the pharynx and then to the trachea (or windpipe). 

The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi. Each bronchus then subdivides into smaller and smaller bronchi. The smallest are bronchioles

At the end of each bronchiole is a cluster of tiny air sacks called alveoli. Lungs have about 600 million alveoli. The alveoli are covered with a network of capillaries. Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli. Oxygen passes from the alveoli to the capillaries and into the blood. 

At the same time carbon dioxide leaves the blood and enters the alveoli. The air carrying carbon dioxide goes through the bronchioles to the bronchi and the trachea and finally out through the mouth and nose.

There are two processes involved in respiration: pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange.

A. Pulmonary ventilation

It is the movement of air into and out the lungs. The process is performed by two movements: inhalation and exhalation.


When we take a breath, our diaphragm, the big muscle under the lungs, contracts and flattens to allow the lungs to inflate. The ribs expand and move up to make more room.


When we breathe out, the ribs relax and move back in. The diaphragm relaxes and moves up, pushing the carbon dioxide out of the lungs and back up the trachea, out of the nose and mouth.

B. Gas exchange.

In your lungs you have alveoli. It is here that gas exchange occurs. During this process, oxygen passes into your blood and carbon dioxide leaves your body.


The excretory system eliminates (or excretes) waste products from our body. Our body excretes carbon dioxide, urine and water. The excretory system consists of the urinary system and the sweat glands.

A. The urinary system
The urinary system is the principle way in which the body gets rid of waste
from blood. It produces about 1.4 litres of urine every day.
  • 1. The renal arteries carry blood to the kidneys.
  • 2. The kidneys eliminate water and waste products from the blood. This
  • combination of water and harmful substances forms urine.
  • 3. Urine leaves the kidneys and passes down through two tubes called 
  • the ureters to the bladder.
  • 4. When the bladder is about half-full, it sends signals to the brain that it 
  • needs to be emptied. This is when you want to go to the toilet!
  • 5. The bladder is emptied by another tube called the urethra.

    B. Sweating
Our body also eliminates waste products through the skin. When we get hot, sweat glands in our skin are activated to cool down the body. These glands excrete sweat which is a mixture of water and minerals. Sweat leaves our body through pores.

miércoles, 18 de octubre de 2017

Representing the Earth: Maps and Globes

We use maps and globes to represent what we know about the Earth. Different maps can provide us with information on landscapes, climate, countries or population.


Maps are drawings that uses lines, symbols and colours to represent countries, landscapes and features, such us roads, parks and buildings. The science of making maps is called cartography.

a. Characteristics of maps:

- Features and objects on maps are represented using symbols. The meaning of these symbols is explained in a key or map leyend (leyenda). 

- Maps inlude a compass rose (rosa de los vientos) thar shows cardinal directions: north, south, east, and west. In general, north on a map points to the top of the page.

- Maps have a scale. A scale shows the relationship between the distances on the map and the actual distances on the Earth.
Resultado de imagen de maps key compass rose scale

b. Types of maps

- Political maps show countries, their borders and capital cities.

- Physical maps show physical features, such as mountains, plains and rivers.
Europe Physical Map

- Weather maps show cloud cover, rainfall and temperatures.
Resultado de imagen de weather maps europe

c. World maps

World maps represent the complete surface of the Earth on a flat map.


Globes are more accurate than maps for representing the Earth because they are three-dimensional like the Earth itself. Once you try to reproducethe surface of the Earth on a flat map, the sizes and shapes get distorted. Some countries appear larger than they really are.

       A political word globe                                        A physical world globe
Resultado de imagen de political world globe                           Resultado de imagen de physical world globe

To describe geographical locations on Earth, we use a system of imaginary lines called parallels and meridians

- Parallels are circular lines that go around the Earth from east to west. The longest parallel, the Equator, divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.

- Meridians are circular lines that go from north to south and pass through the poles. Meridians are the same length. The Prime Meridian, also called the Greenwich Meridian, divides the Earth into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. 

The parallels and meridians form a grid that we use to measure the geographic coordinates of different places. Latitude is the distance in degrees from the Equator (0º). The points north from the Equator are northern latitudes (N) The points south from the Equator are southern latitudes (S). The North Pole is at 90°N.The South Pole is at 90º S. 

Longitude is the distance in degrees from the Prime Meridian (0º). The points east from the Prime Meridian are eastern longitudes (E). The points west from the Prime Meridian are western longitudes (W). 

The latitude of Madrid is 40°N. The longitude of Madrid is 3ºW. The geographicoordinates of Madrid are 40°N, 3ºW.

Activity1. : Wich country do you find at those coordinates?

Activity 2: Get the GPS Coordinates for your city, Madrid and your favourite place in the world.

Activity 3: Make a Mind Map of this unit.

Activity 4: Do Edpuzzle activity.

* Rúbrica para el mapa conceptual:

miércoles, 27 de septiembre de 2017

Locomotor system

How we move!

Our body moves in response to signals from the brain. These signals travel through the nervous system to our muscles. These contract and relax to allow us to move, hold objects, kick balls and make other movements. The whole system is called the locomotor or musculoskeletal system. It is made up of the skeleton, joints and muscles.

1. The skeleton
The skeleton´s function is:
- to support and give shape to our body and
- to protect the internal organs.

The skeleton is made up of bones and cartilage. Bones are made of hard bone tissue, but cartilage is made of a more flexible tissue.

There are different types of bones:
a. Short and wide bones, such as our vertebrae, provide support and stability.
b. Flat and thin bones, such as our ribs, protect our internal organs.
c. Long and strong bones, such as bones in our arms and legs, are use for movement.

Resultado de imagen de skeleton

2. Joints
Our bones are connected at the joints by strong, elastic tissue called ligaments. Flexible cartilage protects the ends of these bones.

There are three types of joints:
a. Fixed joints (for example the skull  that does not move)
b. Semi-flexible joints (vertebrae which allow some movement) 
c. Flexible joints (elbows, wrists, knees, ankles and shoulders which allow a lot of movement).

 Resultado de imagen de joints