miércoles, 18 de octubre de 2017

Representing the Earth: Maps and Globes

We use maps and globes to represent what we know about the Earth. Different maps can provide us with information on landscapes, climate, countries or population.




1. MAPS

Maps are drawings that uses lines, symbols and colours to represent countries, landscapes and features, such us roads, parks and buildings. The science of making maps is called cartography.

a. Characteristics of maps:

- Features and objects on maps are represented using symbols. The meaning of these symbols is explained in a key or map leyend (leyenda). 

- Maps inlude a compass rose (rosa de los vientos) thar shows cardinal directions: north, south, east, and west. In general, north on a map points to the top of the page.

- Maps have a scale. A scale shows the relationship between the distances on the map and the actual distances on the Earth.
Resultado de imagen de maps key compass rose scale

b. Types of maps

- Political maps show countries, their borders and capital cities.

- Physical maps show physical features, such as mountains, plains and rivers.
Europe Physical Map

- Weather maps show cloud cover, rainfall and temperatures.
Resultado de imagen de weather maps europe

c. World maps

World maps represent the complete surface of the Earth on a flat map.

2. WORLD GLOBES

Globes are more accurate than maps for representing the Earth because they are three-dimensional like the Earth itself. Once you try to reproducethe surface of the Earth on a flat map, the sizes and shapes get distorted. Some countries appear larger than they really are.

       A political word globe                                        A physical world globe
Resultado de imagen de political world globe                           Resultado de imagen de physical world globe



3. GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES.
To describe geographical locations on Earth, we use a system of imaginary lines called parallels and meridians

- Parallels are circular lines that go around the Earth from east to west. The longest parallel, the Equator, divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.

- Meridians are circular lines that go from north to south and pass through the poles. Meridians are the same length. The Prime Meridian, also called the Greenwich Meridian, divides the Earth into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. 

The parallels and meridians form a grid that we use to measure the geographic coordinates of different places. Latitude is the distance in degrees from the Equator (0º). The points north from the Equator are northern latitudes (N) The points south from the Equator are southern latitudes (S). The North Pole is at 90°N.The South Pole is at 90º S. 

Longitude is the distance in degrees from the Prime Meridian (oe). The points east from the Prime Meridian are eastern longitudes (E) The points west from the Prime Meridian are western longitudes (W). latitude of Madrid is 40°N. The longitude of Madrid is 3ºW. The geographic coordinates of Madrid are 40°N, 3ºW.


lunes, 16 de octubre de 2017

Unit2: CNutrition

0. INTRODUCTION

Our bodies need energy to work. The energy we receive in the form of food and drink is processed by the digestive system. The respiratory system extracts oxygen from the atmosphere and uses it to convert the nutrients into energy. The circulatory system then transports this energy to different parts of the body. Finally, the excretory system gets rid of unwanted or toxic subtances. The different systems all work in harmony to keep us healthy.

Analyse and organise:

Look at the box below. It has terms for different parts of the body. What function do they have?
Copy and complete the diagram.



miércoles, 27 de septiembre de 2017

Locomotor system

How we move!

Our body moves in response to signals from the brain. These signals travel through the nervous system to our muscles. These contract and relax to allow us to move, hold objects, kick balls and make other movements. The whole system is called the locomotor or musculoskeletal system. It is made up of the skeleton, joints and muscles.

1. The skeleton
The skeleton´s function is:
- to support and give shape to our body and
- to protect the internal organs.

The skeleton is made up of bones and cartilage. Bones are made of hard bone tissue, but cartilage is made of a more flexible tissue.

There are different types of bones:
a. Short and wide bones, such as our vertebrae, provide support and stability.
b. Flat and thin bones, such as our ribs, protect our internal organs.
c. Long and strong bones, such as bones in our arms and legs, are use for movement.

Resultado de imagen de skeleton


2. Joints
Our bones are connected at the joints by strong, elastic tissue called ligaments. Flexible cartilage protects the ends of these bones.

There are three types of joints:
a. Fixed joints (for example the skull  that does not move)
b. Semi-flexible joints (vertebrae which allow some movement) 
c. Flexible joints (elbows, wrists, knees, ankles and shoulders which allow a lot of movement).

 Resultado de imagen de joints